YEAR 2021 N.º 1 Volume 24

ISSN 2182-9845

2021 N.º 1 Volume 24
EDITORIAL

Rute Teixeira Pedro

Covid-19 Pandemic and contractual crises
(A pandemia Covid-19 e as crises contratuais)

Em março de 2021, completa-se um ano sobre a data da deteção dos primeiros casos positivos do vírus SARS-COV2 em Portugal. No mesmo mês, perfaz-se também um ano sobre a data da declaração, pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, do estado de pandemia por força da disseminação do novo coronavírus detetado no fim do ano anterior na cidade chinesa de Wuhan.
O contexto pandémico importou, desde logo, e muito especialmente num primeiro momento, perturbações significativas do habitual desenrolar da vida quotidiana, com a quebra ou afetação importante de algumas cadeias regulares de circulação e transmissão de bens e de prestação de serviços.

CARLOS FERREIRA DE ALMEIDA: IN MEMORIAM

Fernando Gravato Morais

O Professor Doutor Carlos Ferreira de Almeida nasceu em Setúbal, em 28 de setembro de 1938. Licenciou-se em Direito, no ano de 1960, na Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa, onde também concluiu o Mestrado e o Doutoramento em Ciências Jurídicas (em 1992). Conheci pessoalmente o Professor Doutor Carlos Ferreira de Almeida quando iniciei as minhas funções de docente, no ano de 1993, ao tempo no Departamento de Direito (atualmente Escola de Direito) da Universidade do Minho, por alturas da organização de um ciclo de conferências sobre Contratos Comerciais. Mais tarde, 5 anos volvidos (1998), “reencontrei” o Professor Doutor Carlos Ferreira de Almeida, como arguente nas minhas provas de Mestrado na Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Coimbra.

Legal aspects of associative agreements in Brazil and CADE’s judgments perspective

Alexandre Ferreira de Assumpção Alves / José Carlos Jordão Pinto Dias

Business contracts; Associative agreements; Art. 90, Law no. 12.529/2011; Corporate unbundling; Collaboration; Mergers and acquisitions.

The present paper analyses aspects of associative contracts, category founded in art. 90, Law no. 12,529/2011. CADE's most recent decisions, in light of Resolution no. 17/2016, set four requirements for the contract to be qualified as associative, for the purposes of art. 90 of Law 12.529 / 2011, that is, i) the parties are competitors; ii) duration of more than two years; iii) joint venture to explore economic activity; and iv) sharing of risks and results. The research applies deductive method, using bibliographical and documentary research. It is also a multidisciplinary investigation and is a topic related to Contract Law, Competition Law and Economic Law. The article deals, first, with the phenomenon of corporate unbundling and the rise of collaboration between economic agents.

Protecting individuals in a big data age: the opacity of the algorithm and automated decision-making

Inês da Silva Costa

Algorithm; big data; automated individual decision-making; profiling; machine learning; data protection.

In the age of big data, intelligent and opaque algorithms make decisions that are likely to produce significant legal effects in the sphere of data subjects, starting from a fictionalized identity based on their digital footprint. The purpose of this research is to test the adequacy of the protection granted to the natural person by the legal regime of automated decision-making set out in the General Data Protection Regulation.

Teleworking from abroad: some issues regarding taxation, social security and labour law

Suzana Fernandes da Costa / Conceição Soares

teleworking; residency; permanent establishment; applicable labour law; substantial part of the activity.

With the pandemic caused by COVID-19, teleworking has been more and more frequent in Portugal. The remote work can often be done from outside Portugal. This circumstance can have relevant consequences for both employers and workers. In this article we propose to analyze the tax, labour and social security framework for teleworking from abroad and the risks it may imply.

Tax compliance by civic motivations: an exploratory study in Portugal

José Neves Cruz / Daniela Wilks / Pedro Sousa

Voluntary tax compliance; tax evasion; tax authority; tax moral; perceptions of justice; civic duty.

This paper explores the motivations that lead individuals to voluntary tax compliance. Based on the literature; it was analysed whether the act of asking for an invoice with the insertion of the buyer's tax identification number, which contributes to the control of tax evasion, is carried out for civic reasons. The research focused on several civic motivations, namely patriotic feelings, involvement with political institutions, tax moral, perceptions of justice, altruism and the influence of social norms. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the information collected in a survey responded by a sample of Portuguese citizens with medium-high education levels led to the conclusion that fiscal policy measures that promote civic motivations increase voluntary tax compliance.

Access to essential medicines and other health products to treat COVID-19 and Intellectual Property Rights: Special reference to patent compulsory licenses

Mª Mercedes Curto Polo

Access to medicines; Intellectual Property Rights; Patents; Public Health; Compulsory Licences.

The World Health Organization in the Strategy Update of April 2020 to the Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan to COVID-19 highlighted the coordinated support that is required from the international community to meet the challenge of COVID-19. Nevertheless, it seems that the different laboratories (sometimes supported by national Governments) which have undertaken an unknown race in order to first arrive to the vaccine or the drug most effective against COVID-19 are not going to give up the opportunity to protect these inventions by IPRs, especially patents. In fact, patent offices from different countries have announced that the number of patent applications related to COVID-19 has dramatically increased in the latest months.

Settlement of International conflicts of jurisdiction in private and criminal law. Self-contained areas or is there room for transference in the EU framework?

Alejandro Hernández López / Irene Merino Calle

International Private Law; Criminal Procedure Law; European Union Law; conflict of jurisdiction; lis pendens; judicial cooperation.

The establishment of grounds of jurisdiction in International Private Law to confer jurisdiction in international private situations to the courts of one State or another is based on the closeness of the legal position to the State whose courts shall decide the dispute. By contrast, in criminal law, the allocation of jurisdiction, which remains an exclusive competence of the States, is still a time-consuming procedure full of burdens. In this sense, determining which court shall investigate and prosecute a cross-border case highly depends on the rules laid down on up-to 27 national criminal laws.

Book review of Cazurro Barahona, Víctor: Antecedentes y fundamentos del Derecho a la protección de datos, J.M. Bosch Editor, Barcelona, 2020, 156 pp. (ISBN 9788412157918)

David López Jiménez

Access; Law and technology; Privacy; Data Protection; protection.

Book review of Cazurro Barahona, Víctor: Antecedentes y fundamentos del Derecho a la protección de datos, J.M. Bosch Editor, Barcelona, 2020, 156 pp. (ISBN 9788412157918)