Permutations and Combinations Society: Legal Problems of the Sharing Economy

Leading Researcher: Maria Regina Redinha

Permutations and Combinations Society was a major research project conducted by CIJE since 2016 with the output of an international conference held at its symposium in Porto on the 6th and 7th October 2017, which brought together leading researchers on the legal implications of the sharing economy, from Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Italy, United Kingdom and Israel.
The sharing economy is just one of several possible expressions to designate the complex model of social and economical relationships based on the intensive use of digital technology. Similarly as in the mathematical meaning of the title, constant permutations and combinations allow these relationships to be established through the intervention of a third party making traditional contractual positions flexible in such a way that today’s employee is tomorrow’s entrepreneur or today’s consumer is tomorrow’s supplier of goods and services.
This project aimed to highlight where changes of the current legal framework are needed and where adaptations are required, particularly  in the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, British and Brazilian context. Several PhD and Master students were involved in the project.
Within this framework, CIJE undertook this multi and interdisciplinary project of analysis and legal reflection in this thematic area, involving four of its lines of investigation - “Labour Law “, “Business Law”, “Social Law and Consumer Rights” and “Civil and Professional Liability” - with the aim of making new contractual realities recognisable and proceeding to their study in an aggregate manner.


Research in this project was structured around three axes:
1) Labour
2) Business
3) Contractual
In 2019, the following books were published within the project:
i) The Sharing Economy: Legal Problems of a Permutations and Combinations Society, ISBN 15275220329781527522039
ii) Relaciones Contratuales en la Economia Colaborativa y en la Sociedad Digital, ISBN 978-84-1324-306-1
Master's Degree Dissertations

Mota, Ana Teresa Moreira Ferreira da, A protecção do consumidor em face do fenómeno do consumo de colaboração, FDUP, Porto, 2017
Pinheiro, Ana Sofia Gomes, Legal problems of crowdfunding. Crowdfunding and Competition Law in the United Kingdom, FDUP, Porto, 2020